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Two Or More Cups Of Coffee A Day Linked To Cardiovascular Disease

Drinking two or more cups of coffee per day may more than increase the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease in those with severe hypertension.

Drinking two or more cups of coffee a day may double the risk of death from cardiovascular disease among people with severe high blood pressure (160/100 mm Hg or higher) One cup of coffee and daily green tea consumption did not increase the risk at any blood pressure measurement.

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According to new research published today in the Journal of the American Heart Association, drinking two or more cups of coffee per day may double the risk of death from cardiovascular disease in people with severe high blood pressure (160/100 mm Hg or higher) but not in people with high blood pressure that is not considered severe.

In contrast, despite the fact that both beverages contain caffeine, the study revealed that one cup of coffee and daily green tea drinking did not raise the risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease at any blood pressure measurement. An 8-ounce cup of green or black tea has 30-50 milligrammes of caffeine, whereas an 8-ounce cup of coffee contains closer to 80 to 100 mg.

Previous studies revealed that consuming one cup of coffee per day can aid heart attack survivors by decreasing their chance of mortality after a heart attack and can help prevent heart attacks or strokes in healthy people. Separate studies have also suggested that drinking coffee on a regular basis may lower the risk of developing chronic illnesses such as Type 2 diabetes and some cancers; may help to control appetite; may help to lower the risk of depression or boost alertness, though it is unclear whether this effect is due to caffeine or something else in coffee. On the negative side, drinking too much coffee can cause high blood pressure, anxiety, heart palpitations, and difficulties sleeping.

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Coffee And Cardiovascular Disease

Our study sought to evaluate if the known beneficial benefit of coffee extends to persons with varying degrees of hypertension, as well as to investigate the effects of green tea in the same group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to discover a link between drinking two or more cups of coffee per day and cardiovascular disease mortality in adults with severe hypertension.”

Hiroyasu Iso, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., senior author of the study, head of the Institute for Global Health Policy Research, Bureau of International Health Cooperation, National Center for Global Health and Medicine in Tokyo, Japan, and emeritus professor at Osaka University.

High blood pressure, commonly known as hypertension, occurs when the force of blood pressing against the walls of blood arteries is constantly excessive, requiring the heart to work harder to pump blood. The unit of measurement is millimetres of mercury (mm Hg). The current American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology blood pressure recommendations define hypertension as a blood pressure value of 130/80 mm Hg or greater.

This study’s blood pressure standards deviate somewhat from the ACC/AHA recommendations. Blood pressure was categorised into five categories by researchers: ideal and normal (less than 130/85 mm Hg); high normal (130-139/85-89 mm Hg); grade 1 hypertension (140-159/90-99 mm Hg); grade 2 hypertension (160-179/100-109 mm Hg); and grade 3 hypertension (more than 180/110 mm Hg). In this study, blood pressure readings in grades 2 and 3 were deemed severe hypertension.

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Two Or More Cups Of Coffee

At the outset of the study, more than 6,570 men and more than 12,000 women aged 40 to 79 years participated. They were chosen from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Cancer Risk Evaluation, a large, prospective study of individuals residing in 45 Japanese municipalities conducted between 1988 and 1990. Health checks and self-administered questionnaires examining lifestyle, food, and medical history were used to collect data from participants.

During the approximately 19-year follow-up period (through 2009), 842 cardiovascular-related fatalities were recorded. Data analysis for all participants revealed: Drinking two or more cups of coffee per day was linked to a twofold increase in the risk of dying from cardiovascular disease in those with blood pressures of 160/100 mm Hg or higher compared to those who did not drink any coffee.
Regardless of blood pressure category, drinking one cup of coffee per day was not related with an increased risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease.
In any blood pressure category, green tea drinking was not related with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease death.

“These findings may support the claim that persons with severe high blood pressure should avoid excessive coffee consumption,” said Iso. “Because patients with severe hypertension are more vulnerable to the effects of caffeine, the adverse effects of caffeine may outweigh the preventive advantages and raise the risk of mortality.”

The study discovered that persons who drank more coffee were younger, current smokers, current drinkers, ate less vegetables, and had higher total cholesterol levels and lower systolic blood pressure (top number) regardless of blood pressure category.

The presence of polyphenols, which are micronutrients with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects found in plants, may explain the advantages of green tea. Despite the fact that both green tea and coffee contain caffeine, the researchers believe polyphenols may play a role in why only coffee intake was connected with an elevated risk of mortality in those with severe high blood pressure.

The study had several limitations: coffee and tea consumption were self-reported; blood pressure was measured at a single point, which did not account for changes over time; and because the study was observational, it could not draw a direct cause-and-effect relationship between coffee consumption and cardiovascular disease risk among people with severe high blood pressure.

Researchers said further research is needed to understand more about the effects of coffee and green tea consumption in patients with high blood pressure, as well as to confirm the effects of coffee and green tea consumption in other nations.

FAQs

Our study sought to evaluate if the known beneficial benefit of coffee extends to persons with varying degrees of hypertension, as well as to investigate the effects of green tea in the same group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to discover a link between drinking two or more cups of coffee per day and cardiovascular disease mortality in adults with severe hypertension.”

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